The Expert Team put together their know-how and application experience in fastening especially for you. Have a look at these interesting White Papers (login required).


With the increased importance of lightweight construction, designers face the challenge of additional holes needed for assembly. These not only affect the design, but also impact the maximum possible load.

Proven solutions already exist! In this white paper you will learn how two smart inventors changed the business and provided solutions for a completely different way of designing. In the meantime, their innovations have become a standard in many industries, such as in automotive manufacturing and aerospace.

The white paper covers the following topics:

  • Change of the lightweight industry
  • Ken Stanley and his vision
  • How to realize new design opportunities
  • Controlled deformation for high loads

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The notion of "appearance" in coatings

Corrosion-resistance, strength, stability. In addition to these classic properties of mechanical connections, often an additional aspect plays an important role: Aesthetics. 

Aesthetics include color, shine and surface quality, in which the fastener either catches the eye, or blends into the connector.  

This white paper gives you an overview of the various chemical, electrolytic and mechanical processes, their applicability on various base materials, their suitability for various applications as well as their benefits and drawbacks. 

A fascinating read for fastener professionals, who don't take the design of their fasteners for granted. 

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Selecting a fastener finish

Surface treatment plays a significant role in choosing the right fasteners. This white paper will investigate the six most-used coatings (zinc electroplating, zinc/nickel plating, mechanical zinc plating, zinc flake coating, hot dip galvanizing and epoxy coating) using the following criteria:

  1. Security of the connection
  2. Corrosion protection
  3. Resistance against damage by improper handling
  4. Fastener criticality
  5. Functionality
  6. Availability
  7. Costs 

A handy overview of the most common surface treatments and their evaluation criteria. 

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Heat treatment of fasteners

Heat treatments allow, on the one hand, only certain processing methods for materials. On the other hand, they are used to increase mechanical strength (ductility) and, for some alloys, corrosionresistance. 

In this white paper, you will learn about important facts on heat treatment of steels as well as aluminum and non-ferrous alloys, their classification and their relevant mechanical characteristics. 

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Why friction in screw connections is crucial for process capability

«Lean Production» is the current trend and represents even leaner and more target-oriented processes. Solutions for higher efficiency, lower consumption and longer service lives are being researched worldwide. When assessing new materials or processes for surface treatment or finishing, tribological properties such as friction, lubrication and wear are almost always a factor.

In industrial production, removable screw connections continue to be an important component while taking new designs and materials into account. With regard to material exploitation and process capability, ever-increasing requirements are demanded of the assembly processes. Therefore, the companies in the international field are under growing pressure to find even better solutions that support more efficient assembly conditions and longer operating cycles.

To realize «Lean Production» and successful connection solutions, Martin Rüedy from Bossard’s team of experts responds to the following questions:

  • How does friction influence process capabilities of screw connections?
  • Why should friction not be ignored?
  • What is most influenced by friction?
  • What are the benefits of lubrication, and what alternatives are available?

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DIN 7500

The DIN 7500 standard was first published in the late seventies and has been updated a number of times since. Simultaneously with the publication of DIN 7500-2 “guideline values for hole diameters” the standard for screws was named DIN 7500-1. However, most often the screws are just referred to as DIN 7500.

DIN 7500 screws are thread rolling screws for metals that form an ISO metric thread upon installation. For a great number of applications the total in-place costs and joint performance can be optimized at the same time. This is the reason why DIN 7500 screws have greatly increased in popularity over the years and continue to be the first choice fastener for many situations. Peter Witzke from the Bossard Expert Team writes about:

  • Trilobular thread forming systems
  • Spiralform
  • Technical information and benefits
  • Standard screws and special developments

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Fastener solution for composites

by Matthew Stevens, Managing Director, bigHead® Bonding Fasteners Ltd

As composite materials grow both in range and volume of applications, the challenge to find the right fastening solution continues to grow. This paper explores some trusted fastening solutions within this fast growing market.

  • What is a composite?
  • The growth of composites
  • The fastening challenge in composites
  • Fasteners embedded in composites
  • Surface bonding on composites

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Hydrogen embrittlement – the silent killer

The embrittlement of metal caused by hydrogen atoms is not new. It was first reported back in 1875, more than a century ago. Nonetheless the awareness of the risk of hydrogen embrittlement, especially in mechanical fasteners deserves more serious attention.

Here is the reason why:

The failure of a fastener caused by hydrogen embrittlement is a delayed one. The breakage occurs not immediately after the fastener is assembled, but hours, days or even weeks later. Because of the nature of this failure, chances to detect hydrogen embrittlement during the in-process control or out-going quality check, is nearly impossible.

More than often products are already assembled and shipped. This has caused various companies immense sums for product recall. The damage on the brand image is unimaginable. It can happen anytime. Hydrogen embrittlement is a silent killer!

The White Paper is about questions surrounding hydrogen embrittlement, especially in fastening applications. Peter Witzke from the Bossard Expert Team writes about:

  • Basics of hydrogen embrittlement
  • Entry of hydrogen into the fastener
  • Diffusion of hydrogen to high tensile stress regions in the fastener
  • Hydrogen segregation to grain boundaries, inclusion, dislocations and other traps
  • Reach of critical value of hydrogen concentration
  • Prevention and hydrogen relief
  • Procedure to inspect fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement

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Should fasteners be reused?

The reuse of screws, nuts and bolts sounds as though it should save costs, but it does not.

In this White Paper, Martin Rüedy from the Bossard Expert team does not recommend the reuse fastening elements in relation to

  • Installation safety
  • Corrosion protection
  • Quality of the surface treatment
  • Durability
  • Efficient production - assembly cost

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What is corrosion?

Corrosion can occur whenever different metal components are in contact each other. What immediately comes in mind when we hear about corrosion, is the brown-reddish piece of metal. When we ask the expert, the answer is not quite as simple. Corrosion can be in different colors and forms. So what really is corrosion? What causes it? How to avoid it?

In the following White Paper you can read about the different types of corrosion and ways to prevent it.  Here's what Doug Jones from the Bossard Expert Team can tell about:

  • Uniform corrosion
  • Crevice corrosion
  • Galvanic corrosion
  • Pitting corrosion
  • Intergranular corrosion
  • Hydrogen embrittlement

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Loosening joint – don't lose it!

From power generation to automation, transportation systems to recreational and sports equipment, testing and measuring equipment to healthcare technology, digital gadgets to children’s toys, threaded fasteners are used to assemble these products. Threaded joints have a lot of benefits to offer and also weaknesses. One of the challenges in threaded joints, is self-loosening.

The topic on self-loosening never fails to attract the interest of products designers, production specialists, industrial engineers and maintenance and safety officers. The reason is clear, it is about safety!

Michael Kaas from the Bossard Expert Team has selected the topic as one of more important challenges in fastening and would like to share some insights into it. Read the White Paper about:

  • Head style
  • Nuts
  • Thread locking features
  • Adhesive patches
  • Washers 

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Galling of stainless steel fasteners

Are your connecting components regularly subject to seizing and so frequently cause a problem? In this professional article you can not only learn the causes and preventative measures, but targeted solutions for preventing cold welding.

Connecting components subjected to excessive demands or high temperatures are particularly in danger. Particularly when fixing elements and components are manufactured from different materials and the friction coefficient is high, it can lead to so-called seizing or cold welding. 

Even in manufacture this challenge can be met by adequately coating the connecting components. Concrete solutions are described in detail in the professional article by Garg Deepak from Bossard's team of experts.

The contents at a glance:

  • Causes of cold welding
  • Galling and its causes
  • Manufacturing processes and galling
  • High temperature fasteners and galling
  • Prevention of galling
  • Top coat
  • Tribological coating

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Making the right choice

The primary function of connecting components, as is well known, is to guarantee easy assembly and maintenance. Development engineers are regularly faced with the challenge of finding the right connecting component for a new connection job.

The author of this white paper, Francis Khoo from Bossard's expert team, has examined how thanks to the selection the right element you can increase productivity and at the same time minimize risks. It shows what demands are made of connecting components and how the selection of the right element results in a functional product design that at the same time offers the necessary security.

Finally helpful sources are given which are useful in the planning and implementation of connection solutions.

The contents at a glance: 

  • Preface
  • The Tasks
  • The Availability
  • The Decision
  • Summary and conclusion
  • About Bossard Engineering Services

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